Hip and trunk muscle dysfunction: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention
Due to the short and long-term consequences of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, significant efforts have been devoted to identifying injury risk factors and develop screening and prevention tools. A growing body of evidence has identified hip and trunk muscle strength and functional performance as modifiable risk factors in ACL injury. Screening tools have been developed to capture hip and trunk function in order to identify athletes with elevated injury risk. Furthermore, ACL injury prevention programs include activities to improve hip and trunk strength and motor control during dynamic tasks. Because of the considerable focus and the growing body of evidence, the role of the hip and trunk in ACL injury etiology, screening tools, and prevention programs requires review and synthesis for improved implementation in clinical practice. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight the role of the hip and trunk in primary ACL injury, identify screening tests that may reveal deficits of the hip and trunk, and discuss the efficacy of prevention programs in correcting hip and trunk risk factors and ACL injury risk.