Treatment of the medial collateral ligament injuries
Ligament injuries at the medial side of the knee are frequent in both isolated or in the context of more complex injuries. Improved understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the ligaments that make up this complex have ultimately enhanced clinical outcomes. These concepts, in association with the results described previously, allow the majority of the lesions on the medial side to be treated non-operatively. There is also a close correlation of the medial structures’ tears with the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL) lesions. Different treatment algorithms and several techniques have been described to address injuries of the medial aspect of the knee, especially when combined with other ligament injuries. In this scenario, the treatment is still controversial and full of potential problems. This paper will review the anatomical and physiological basis for treatment of medial collateral ligament injuries, particularly focusing on the treatment flow chart and surgical options.