Three-dimensional bioprinting for bone and cartilage transplantation
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies can now be applied to biocompatible materials, cells, and supporting components. This 3D bioprinting could allow printing of artificial organs. Although this potential is far from realized, and despite the constant technical changes, 3D bioprinting has already been valuable in orthopedic applications like bone and cartilage repair, with advances in 3D modeling of defective tissue, stem cell differentiation, bioprinting technology, and innovations in printing materials. In the present study, we reviewed the recent advances in 3D bioprinting, as well as a general procedure for 3D bioprinting for bone and cartilage transplantation. In addition, we review the applications that aim to replace damaged bone and cartilage tissues, and research of in vitro tissue culture models. Potential challenges are discussed based on the present limitations and technical perspective of 3D bioprinting for bone and cartilage transplantation.