Clinical anatomy and stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint
Shoulder pain and instability are common complaints in primary care and orthopaedic sports medicine clinics. Diagnoses and treatment can prove to be a challenge for practitioners, especially if the underlying normal and pathologic anatomy is not well understood. The glenohumeral joint is a multiaxial synovial ball and socket joint that permits a wide range of motion at the cost of inherent stability. To provide support to the joint, osseous and capsuloligamentous static stabilizers function in concert with dynamic muscular stabilizers. This article will review these critical structures and provide an anatomic guide to restore function and stability in the clinical setting.